Written by Thallif Deen
UNITED NATIONS—The tiger population in the rainforests of Sumatra is vanishing at a staggering rate, reducing the number of the endangered species to as few as 400, warns Greenpeace International.
The primary reason is the expansion of oil palm and pulpwood plantations, which are responsible for nearly two-thirds of the destruction of tiger habitat from 2009 to 2011, the most recent period for which official Indonesian government data are available.
In a new study released last week, Greenpeace says such destruction fragments the extensive tracts of rainforest over which tigers need to range in order to hunt.
“It also increases their contact with humans,” the study says. “This leads to more poaching for tiger skins and traditional medicines and more tiger attacks, resulting in both tiger and human deaths.”
The decline of Sumatran tigers is a measure of the loss of rainforest, biodiversity and also climate stability, according to the study titled “Licence to Kill.”
This summer, huge fires, both accidental and deliberate, raged across the Sumatran province of Riau, destroying hundreds of thousands of hectares of rainforests—including the deep peatland forests that are a last stand of tiger habitat in the province.
The fires released record amounts of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions and pollutants in a haze that stretched as far as Thailand.
There are no estimates on how many tigers have been killed so far, although the figure could be in the thousands over the last decade.
Asked whether the United Nations is engaged in the protection of tigers, Bustar Maitar, the Indonesian head of Greenpeace’s Forest Campaign and Global Forest Network, told Inter Press Service (IPS), “I don’t see much UN activity on forests.
“The only thing I know is the UN Development Programme [UNPD] manages a $1-billion fund from the Norwegian government for the UN collaborative initiative on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation [REDD].” He said REDD was working closely with its Indonesian counterpart to accelerate REDD projects in Indonesia.
Maitar also said the UN’s focus is more on general sustainable development and democracy in Indonesia than on protecting the tiger, described as a critically endangered species.
“Or they might not really be clear as to how to fit in with this issue in Indonesia,” he said, adding that the UN could provide more technical assistance and capacity building for government and civil society.
The UN REDD program was launched in 2008 and encompasses the technical expertise of UNDP, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and the UN Environment Programme.
It supports nationally led REDD+ processes and “promotes the informed and meaningful involvement of all stakeholders, including indigenous peoples and other forest-dependent communities, in national and international REDD+ implementation,“ according to the United Nations.
Currently, about 85 percent of Indonesia’s GHG emissions typically come from land-use changes (principally related to deforestation for plantations or agriculture), and around half of this is peat-related.
Even Sumatran tiger habitat in protected areas such as the world-famous Tesso Nilo National Park has been virtually destroyed by encroachment for illegal palm-oil production, and government officials acknowledge that protection for such areas exists only on paper, Greenpeace International says.
The study also points out that forested tiger habitat in licensed plantation concessions has no protection at all. One million hectares—10 percent of all remaining forested tiger habitat—remained at risk of clearance in pulp and oil palm concessions in 2011. Over the 2009-to-2011 period, pulpwood suppliers were responsible for a sixth of all forested tiger habitat loss. And during the same period, the palm-oil sector cleared a quarter of the remaining tiger habitat in its concessions.
“These failures expose how unregulated and irresponsible expansion, notably of oil palm and pulp wood plantations, undermines the Indonesian government’s commitments to stop deforestation and to save the tiger and other endangered wildlife,” the study says.
Greenpeace also says its investigations have revealed that household foreign consumer brands are linked to Singapore-based Wilmar International Ltd. and its international trade in dirty palm-oil.
Wilmar is the world’s largest palm-oil processor, accounting for over one-third of the global palm oil processing market and with a distribution network covering over 50 countries.UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon points out that forests are vital for human well-being.
In a message for the International Day of Forests in March, Ban said forests cover nearly a third of the globe and provide an invaluable variety of social, economic and environmental benefits.
Three-fourths of freshwater comes from forested catchment areas. Forests stabilize slopes and prevent landslides, while also protecting coastal communities against tsunamis and storms.
More than 3 billion people use wood for fuel, some 2 billion people depend on forests for sustenance and income, and 750 million live within them, he added.
Ban also said forests are often at the frontlines of competing demands. Urbanization and the consumption needs of growing populations are linked to deforestation for large-scale agriculture and the extraction of valuable timber, oil and minerals.
Often the roads that provide infrastructure for these enterprises ease access for other forest users, who can further exacerbate the rate of forest and biodiversity loss. “We need now to intensify efforts to protect forests, including by incorporating them into the post-2015 development agenda and the sustainable development goals,” Ban noted.
“I urge governments, businesses and all sectors of society to commit to reducing deforestation, preventing forest degradation, reducing poverty and promoting sustainable livelihoods for all forest-dependent peoples,” he said.
The Jakarta Globe
Fidelis E. Satriastanti | July 17, 2012
Indonesia’s forests are home to at least 600 Sumatran tigers, a recently released survey has found, providing a more optimistic picture than a 1994 official report that put the head count for the rare species at between 400 and 500.
The latest survey was conducted from 2007 to 2009 on more than 250 square kilometers of forest covering 38 nature reserves.
“Sumatran tigers were detected in 27 to 29 nature reserves,” Hariyo T. Wibisono, chairman of the Harimau Kita (Our Tigers) conservation forum told BeritaSatu on Monday. “There are Sumatran tigers in those areas but the exact figure is still not known. [We] only know the distribution, in which [areas] they are high, low or stable.”
Hariyo attributed the higher figure not to an increase in population, but to a better extrapolation method. He said the method used in the 1994 survey was not as accurate as that used in the more recent study, adding that the earlier research surveyed only seven locations: five national parks and two conservation forests in Sumatra.
“The figure [400 to 500] was announced in 1994 and the counting was conducted in 1992. But after a population-viability analysis was conducted, it turned out the extrapolation method was inaccurate,” he explained.
To find out about the distribution pattern of the Sumatran tigers, several NGOs whose primary concern is to prevent the extinction of the species conducted the latest survey and publicized the result in a scientific journal last year.
A second survey covering 59 percent of the 38 nature reserves showed that Sumatran tigers inhabit 72 percent of the total tiger habitat area.
“Data compilation used to count the population came from camera traps set up by several NGOs,” Hariyo explained. “They showed there were at least 600 individual tigers. But this hasn’t covered all [areas].”
He said that counting tiger population with camera trapping was difficult due to insufficient resources given the breadth of land that needed to be supervised.
Hariyo said counting the tiger population was not as important as finding ways to protect the rare species.
“In protecting Sumatran tigers, information about their population estimates is not important,” Hariyo said. “What’s important is for the management to know whether they are increasing, declining or remaining stable, as seen from the indicators of their presence and distribution.”
He added that he was always careful about mentioning figures because of the methodology issues.
Dara, a critically endangered Sumatran tiger rescued from a hunter’s trap in Bengkulu in February, was transferred to the Taman Safari Indonesia park in Bogor earlier this month. The female tiger, estimated at 4 to 5 years of age, was found by officials in a logging concession in Mukomuko district. Her front legs were seriously injured from the metal cables in which she was ensnared. The trap was believed to have been set up by poachers.